The UNESCO Interdisciplinary Chair in Biotechnology and Bioethics (2000-2009). An example of Responsible Research and Innovation between Europe and Africa
By Carla Montesano and Vittorio Colizzi
Science education as a trigger for RRI structural change
By Doris Elster, Tanja Barendziak, Julia Birkholz
The history of the scientific enterprise demonstrates that it has supported gender, identity, and racial inequity. Further, its institutions have allowed discrimination, harassment, and personal harm of racialized persons and women. This has resulted in a suboptimal and demographically narrow research and innovation system, a concomitant limited lens on research agendas, and less effective knowledge translation between science and society. We argue that, to reverse this situation, the scientific community must reexamine its values and then collectively embark upon a moonshot-level new agenda for equity. This new agenda should be based upon the foundational value that scientific research and technological innovation should be prefaced upon progress toward a better world for all of society and that the process of how we conduct research is just as important as the results of research. Such an agenda will attract individuals who have been historically excluded from participation in science, but we will need to engage in substantial work to overcome the longstanding obstacles to their full participation. We highlight the need to implement this new agenda via a coordinated systems approach, recognizing the mutually reinforcing feedback dynamics among all science system components and aligning our equity efforts across them.
Jennifer Kuzma and Christopher L. Cummings
Biotech developers are concerned about the future of gene editing having experienced the contentious history of first-generation GM foods. They have also expressed desires to do better with public engagement in gene-editing innovation. The framework of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) may provide a way forward to act on their desires for greater public legitimacy. However, in the United States, -there has also been reluctance to incorporate RRI into biotechnology innovation systems like gene editing in food and agriculture. In this article, we investigate individual- and group-level factors, including demographic, sociographic, and cultural factors, that influence attitudes towards RRI among biotechnology United States stakeholders. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework’s (ACF) hierarchy of beliefs as a theoretical guide, biotechnology stakeholders (n = 110) were surveyed about their cultural (deep-core) beliefs and then about their attitudes towards principles (policy-core beliefs) and practices (secondary beliefs) of RRI applied to biotechnology innovation. Through statistical analysis of the results, we found significant relationships between stronger egalitarian cultural-beliefs and positive attitudes towards both the principles and practices of RRI. We also found that participants with higher levels of experience held more positive attitudes towards principles of RRI. In contrast, we found a significant inverse relationship between professional affiliation with industry or trade organizations and attitudes towards RRI practices. With these results, we present a model of factors that influence RRI attitudes for future testing. In closing, we interpret the results in the context of ACF to examine the potential for building cross-sector coalitions for practicing RRI within United States gene-editing innovation systems.
Luke Somerwill & Uta Wehn
The effects of citizen science are wide ranging, influencing science, society, the economy, the environment, as well as individual participants. However, in many citizen science projects, impact evaluation is still overly simplistic. This is particularly the case when assessing the impact of participation in citizen science on the environmental attitudes, behaviour and knowledge of citizen scientists. In an attempt to bridge the gap between the state of the art in relevant scientific fields and citizen science, this systematic literature review identified best practices and approaches in the field of environmental psychology for measuring environmental attitudes, behaviour and knowledge. From the literature, five relevant and validated approaches were identified that can be used to measure changes in attitudes, behaviour and knowledge in citizen science projects. This would allow for improved understanding of the impacts of citizen science, as well as for improved project evaluation as a whole.
Bringing together the latest research among various communities of practice (disciplinary and place based as well as thematically organised), this volume reflects upon the knowledge, experience and practice gained through taking a unique community of practice approach to fostering gender equality in the sectors of research and innovation, and higher education in Europe and beyond. Based on research funded by the European Union, it considers how inter-organisational collaboration can foster change for gender equality through sharing of experiences of Gender Equality Plan implementation and examining the role of measures such as change-monitoring systems. As such, it will appeal to social scientists with interests in organisational change, the sociology of work and gender equality.
Silvia Donoso Institut de Ciències del Mar Janire Salazar Institut de Ciències del Mar Gracia Puga Esther Garcés
The Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC) in Barcelona has published a Guide for the use of inclusive and non-sexist communication aimed at all the centre's staff. The document, which is part of the actions included in the ICM-CSIC's Gender Equality Plan, provides communication resources, examples and guidelines that address the specific reality and daily activity of the Institute.
Josep Lluís Pelegrí; Josep-Maria Gili; Maria Victoria Martínez de Albeniz
Scientists and technicians at research and technology centres have the great fortune to work on topics that are interesting and creative and that can contribute to the integral development of the human species. The UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development makes this challenge clear at a time when the anthropic impact of global change and climate change urges us to take a new course and to seek new models for interacting with each other and with nature. The Ocean Decade focuses on the greatness and complexity of the oceans, which give ocean sciences the opportunity to become inclusive and transformative, to create a shared future of social justice, environmental sustainability and individual and collective human evolution.
In this paper, we report about the promotion of Sustainability Literacy (SL) within the master study programme of ongoing biology teachers at the University of Bremen. Starting from a literature recherché on the epistemological aspects of SL we examine different scenarios of complex and controversial socioscientific issues in the context of biodiversity change and climate change. We argue for a complexity of content, context, and methods in understanding of current problems in the field of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD).
Focusing on a model of project learning which includes subject knowledge, dialogical and reflective approaches we develop a complex seminar programme (one semester, 180 hours work load) to different future challenges such as „Future change: Woods and Forests“, and „Future change: Agriculture“. We call the programme „INQUIRE for Teacher Students“ (Inquiry based Teacher Education for a Sustainable Future) course.
Salazar, Janire & de Domingo, Angela & Biel, Marina & Baena, Patricia & Santín Muriel, Andreu & Gili, Josep-Maria. (2022). Unexpectedly well-preserved gorgonian communities thriving within Barcelona's city waters. 10.13140/RG.2.2.32025.49768.Abstract
The "Gorgònia Barcelona" project was born in 2021 in Barcelona, one of the cities with more inhabitants of the Mediterranean, in collaboration with the Catalan Federation of Subaquatic Activities (FECDAS) and local social associations. This project counts with the support of the City Hall of Barcelona and the community of practices of biosciences & RRI from ResBios. The project’s approach allows not only to set a base ground for experimental analysis and explore improvements on existing marine restoring techniques, but also to conduct epistemological studies and contribute to ocean literacy and to blue economy of the city of Barcelona.
Andrea Rezić, Toni Safner, Laura Iacolina, Elena Bužan, Nikica ŠpremAbstract
The translocation of wild animal species became a common practice worldwide to re-establish local populations threatened with extinction. Archaeological data confirm that chamois once lived in the Biokovo Mountain but, prior to their reintroduction in the 1960s, there was no written evidence of their recent existence in the area. The population was reintroduced in the period 1964–1969, when 48 individuals of Balkan chamois from the neighbouring mountains in Bosnia and Herzegovina were released. The main objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the existing historical data on the origin of the Balkan chamois population from the Biokovo Mountain and to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of the source and translocated populations 56 years after reintroduction. Sixteen microsatellite loci were used to analyse the genetic structure of three source chamois populations from Prenj, Čvrsnica and Čabulja Mountains and from Biokovo Mountain. Both STRUCTURE and GENELAND analyses showed a clear separation of the reintroduced population on Biokovo from Prenj’s chamois and considerable genetic similarity between the Biokovo population and the Čvrsnica-Čabulja population. This suggests that the current genetic composition of the Biokovo population does not derive exclusively from Prenj, as suggested by the available literature and personal interviews, but also from Čvrsnica and Čabulja. GENELAND analysis recognised the Balkan chamois from Prenj as a separate cluster, distinct from the populations of Čvrsnica and Čabulja. Our results thus highlight the need to implement genetic monitoring of both reintroduced and source populations of endangered Balkan chamois to inform sustainable management and conservation strategies in order to maximise the chances of population persistence.
KeywordsBiokovo, genetic structure, microsatellite, Prenj, translocation